# Hypothesis

Test faster, fix more

properties

A collection of articles about interesting properties to look for in the software you’re testing.

If you’re casting around trying to figure out how to use Hypothesis better, or you have a particular piece of software, this is a good place to look for inspiration.

### Another invariant to test for encoders

The encode/decode invariant is one of the most important properties to know about for testing your code with Hypothesis or other property-based testing systems, because it captures a very common pattern and is very good at finding bugs.

But how do you go beyond it? If encoders are that common, surely there must be other things to test with them?

### Calculating the mean of a list of numbers

Consider the following problem:

You have a list of floating point numbers. No nasty tricks - these aren’t NaN or Infinity, just normal “simple” floating point numbers.

Now: Calculate the mean (average). Can you do it?

It turns out this is a hard problem. It’s hard to get it even close to right. Lets see why.

### Testing as a Complete Specification

Sometimes you’re lucky enough to have problems where the result is completely specified by a few simple properties.

This doesn’t necessarily correspond to them being easy! Many such problems are actually extremely fiddly to implement.

It does mean that they’re easy to test though. Lets see how.

### Testing Configuration Parameters

A lot of applications end up growing a complex configuration system, with a large number of different knobs and dials you can turn to change behaviour. Some of these are just for performance tuning, some change operational concerns, some have other functions.

Testing these is tricky. As the number of parameters goes up, the number of possible configuration goes up exponentially. Manual testing of the different combinations quickly becomes completely unmanageable, not to mention extremely tedious.

Fortunately, this is somewhere where property-based testing in general and Hypothesis in particular can help a lot.

### Evolving toward property-based testing with Hypothesis

Many people are quite comfortable writing ordinary unit tests, but feel a bit confused when they start with property-based testing. This post shows how two ordinary programmers started with normal Python unit tests and nudged them incrementally toward property-based tests, gaining many advantages on the way.

### Testing Optimizers

We’ve previously looked into testing performance optimizations using Hypothesis, but this article is about something quite different: It’s about testing code that is designed to optimize a value. That is, you have some function and you want to find arguments to it that maximize (or minimize) its value.

As well as being an interesting subject in its own right, this will also nicely illustrate the use of Hypothesis’s data() functionality, which allows you to draw more data after the test has started, and will introduce a useful general property that can improve your testing in a much wider variety of settings.

### Testing performance optimizations

Once you’ve flushed out the basic crashing bugs in your code, you’re going to want to look for more interesting things to test.

The next easiest thing to test is code where you know what the right answer is for every input.

Obviously in theory you think you know what the right answer is - you can just run the code. That’s not very helpful though, as that’s the answer you’re trying to verify.

But sometimes there is more than one way to get the right answer, and you choose the one you run in production not because it gives a different answer but because it gives the same answer faster.

### The Encode/Decode invariant

One of the simplest types of invariant to find once you move past just fuzzing your code is asserting that two different operations should produce the same result, and one of the simplest instances of that is looking for encode/decode pairs. That is, you have some function that takes a value and encodes it as another value, and another that is supposed to reverse the process.

This is ripe for testing with Hypothesis because it has a natural completely defined specification: Encoding and then decoding should be exactly the same as doing nothing.

Lets look at a concrete example.